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to attempt, to test, to try, to sample
-ta- causative (“make something be X”)
-ma - infinitive ending
It’s related to another Estonian verb, katsuma (to touch, to try).
Katsuma itself is likely derived from Proto-Finnic: kaccodak
How to use it
What you are experimenting/testing is in the Partitive case (third base form).
Ma katsetasin uut retsepti
Literally: “I experimented new recipe”
Idiomatically: “I experimented with a new recipe”
Ma - Pronoun - Nom Sg, "I" katsetasin - Verb - 1P Past Sg, "experimented" uut - Adjective - Part Sg, "new" retsepti - Noun - Part Sg, "recipe"
Poisid katsetavad oma leiutist
Literally: “Boys experiment their invention”
Idiomatically: “The boys are experimenting with their invention”
Poisid - Noun - Gen Pl, "Boys" katsetavad - Verb - 3P Present Pl, "experiment" oma - Pronoun - Gen Sg, "their" leiutist - Noun - Part Sg, "invention"